The differential technology was invented centuries ago and is considered to be one of the most inventive inventions in automobile system. A differential is a device, capable of transmitting torque and rotation through the shafts. The main function of the differential gear is to allow the drive wheels to turn at different rpms by receiving power from the engine. In automobiles and other wheeled vehicles, the differential gear allows each of the driving roadwheels to rotate at different speeds, while for most vehicles supplying equal torque to each of them.
Apart from allowing the wheels to rotate at different rpm, the differential gear has more functions. First is speed reduction at the pinion-ring gear assembly. This is achieved by using a ring gear, which has a higher gear ratio. such huge gear ratio will bring down the speed of the ring gear in the same ratio. For the power flow at the pinion and ring gear are the same, the speed reduction will result in a high torque elevation.
The rotation of the wheel might vary, mainly when taking turnings. The differential gear is designed to drive the wheels with equal torque while letting them rotate at different speeds. In vehicles without a differential, such as karts, both driving wheels are forced to rotate at the same speed, usually on a common axle driven by a simple chain-drive mechanism. When cornering, the inner wheel needs to travel a shorter distance than the outer wheel, so with no differential, the result is the inner wheel spinning and/or the outer wheel dragging, and this results in difficult and unpredictable handling, damage to tires and roads, and strain on the entire drivetrain.
Do you know most of the failure causing in the differential gear is due to the failure of lubricating oil, while on the ride, long or short, the heat buildup in the differential system will shorten the life of lubricant and the gears as well? Differentials experience higher average temperatures and higher peak temperatures, especially when towing in hills and mountains, so it is essential to provide and upkeep the adequate lube into the differential system and we have to be alert in selecting a gear lube which should have potential to dramatically extend differential life.
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